Pulmonary infiltrates such as pus, blood, or protein, which lingers within the parenchyma of the lungs are the leading cause of pneumonia, tuberculosis. Pulmonary infiltrates in mechanically ventilated (MV) critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are a major diagnostic challenge and due to the poor sampling methods available.
University of Edinburgh
There is a critical need for robust and accurate tools to scale up biodiversity monitoring and to manage the impact of anthropogenic change. For example, the monitoring of individual species that are particularly sensitive to habitat conversion and climate change can act as an important indicator of ecosystem health. Existing approaches for collecting data on individual species in the wild have traditionally been based on manual surveys performed by human experts.
The shape and 3D structure of the world provides us with rich signal that enables us to interact with objects and to navigate in novel and dynamic environments. Despite the importance of this information to human visual reasoning it still remains largely underutilized in modern deep learning based semantic image understanding pipelines commonly used in robotics. For example, current best performing approaches for object classification in images are predominantly based on heavily supervised feedforward convolutional neural networks.
Fish and other aquatic organisms propel themselves via flapping foil. Similarly, aquatic organisms such as squids and octopuses perform pulsation of a hollow, flexible chamber of their body in order to recursively ingest and expel fluid and in this way perform a pulsed-jetting locomotion routine. In order to enhance swimming efficiency, many aquatic organisms exploit resonance-based phenomena where activation frequency and natural frequency of the system (combined fluid and body) are matched.
The coming decades will see the creation of fully autonomous vehicles (AVs) capable of driving without human intervention. Among the expected benefits of AVs are a significant reduction in traffic incidents, congestion, and pollution, while dramatically improving cost-efficiency.
Data-driven machine learning techniques are popularly used in the field of robotics to inform autonomous decision-making and to perform control or path-planning. Supervised learning and reinforcement learning have been shown to be particularly amenable to canonical tasks that are integral to robotics applications. However, these techniques rely on data in the form of action-label (supervised), action-value (regression) or action-reward (RL) pairs, where the action is a path (or some other) execution by a real robot. e.g.
Curiosity guides humans to learn efficiently. It incentivizes us to spend more energy and time examining new, unexpected things, and to disregard those we fully understand already, to make our learning more efficient. Much of the vision learning that is done today is passive: learning systems are exposed to large amounts of training data, and learn from each sample multiple times, regardless of their current ability to recognize them at the time. This makes the process slow, specially given the increasingly large number of samples on datasets.
Human action recognition is a fundamental problem that underlies many applications in robotics, including interaction, home care, collaboration, etc. The actions that can be recognized by robots or computers today are often coarse and simplistic, in the sense that they are very different from each other; for example eating vs playing piano, or sitting vs standing. Both datasets and technology tend to be broad and crude. As human-robot-interaction becomes more natural we require more sophisticated technology for perceiving humans.